The research article on “Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Red Blood Cell Cytoplasmic Viscosity Contrasts on Single Cell and Bulk Transport Behaviour“ by Mike de Haan, Gábor Závodszky, Victor Azizi, and Alfons Hoekstra was recently published in the Special Issue “Development and Applications of Kinetic Solvers for Complex Flows” of Applied Sciences.

The Open Access article builds on our open-source HemoCell ( simulation code:

“We present a parallelised method to implement cytoplasmic viscosity for HemoCell, an open-source cellular model based on immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann methods, using an efficient ray-casting algorithm. The effects of the implementation are investigated with single-cell simulations focusing on the deformation in shear flow, the migration due to wall induced lift forces, the characteristic response time in periodic stretching and pair collisions between red blood cells and platelets. Collective transport phenomena are also investigated in many-cell simulations in a pressure driven channel flow. The simulations indicate that the addition of a viscosity contrast between internal and external fluids significantly affects the deformability of a red blood cell, which is most pronounced during very short time-scale events. Therefore, modelling the cytoplasmic viscosity contrast is important in scenarios with high velocity deformation, typically high shear rate flows.”

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